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Hence he cannot ask the question of where the new people came from.To continue with the remarks of Majer: The Eastern Desert and Red Sea coast were occupied in the Epipaleolithic Period by people who had some connection to the Nile Valley.They do not see human migrations, but people who occupy a particular geographical area with little regard for how they got there.Then they attempt to explain how those isolated people exchanged with one another.The early immigrants came along those routes to settle the regions at Naqada, Hierakonpolis, and down the Nile to Badari.We should not believe the "Eastern Desert" was as inhospitable as it is today.The potential for agriculture must have been greater during a period of increased precipitation.Although Egyptologists speculate on origins and cultural practices of the early people we have considerable evidence of their migration into the Upper Nile valley from across the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea Coast.
Makhadma sites 2 and 4, located in the Nile Valley about ten kilometers northeast of the mouth of the Wadi Qena, has produced evidence for exchange or travel between the Red Sea Coast and the Nile Valley.1989, and this volume) The evidence thus points to cultural similarity between desert and valley for the time just prior to the introduction of agriculture.Refer to the original paper for the reference citations. There is ample evidence that the early valley farming communities were in close contact with the Eastern Desert and Red Sea Coast and were well aware of the resources to be found there.During this three thousand year period the early Egyptians went from a simple agricultural subsistence to a complex social order.We should distinguish between the early periods of agricultural existence, and later periods when a hierarchical social system began to control all aspects of life in the valley.
When the Andite groups were migrating weather conditions were much different. As stated by Majer: The early Badarian period, when the valley and desert peoples shared a common culture, should be contrasted with the Naqada II period, when emerging valley centers increasingly dominated new long distance trade routes that connected the valley to the Mesopotamian cultural spheres.