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The rural areas are populated almost entirely by ethnic Estonians, except for Lake Peipus coast, which has a long history of Old Believers communities.In 2011, University of Tartu sociology professor Marju Lauristin found that 21% were successfully integrated, 28% showed partial integration, and 51% were unintegrated or little integrated.The authorities carried out repressions against many prominent ethnic Russians activists and White emigres in Estonia.After Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941, the Baltics quickly fell under German control.After the First World War, the share of ethnic Russians in the population of independent Estonia was 7.3%.About half of these were indigenous Russians living in Narva, Ivangorod, the Estonian Ingria and the Petseri County, which were added to Estonia territory according to the 1920 Peace Treaty of Tartu, but were transferred (without Narva) to the Russian SFSR in 1944.Most of the present-day Russians in Estonia are recent migrants and their descendants who settled in Estonia in violation of the international law during the Soviet occupation between 19.Following the terms of the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed the Baltic States in 1940.
The initial vision for the project was provided by a single individual – an engineer working with General Electric in Seattle by the name of Howard Long.
Orthodox churches and small communities of proto-Russian merchants and craftsmen remained in Livonian towns as did close trade links with the Novgorod Republic and the Pskov and Polotsk principalities.
In 1481, Ivan III of Russia laid siege to the castle of Fellin (Viljandi) and briefly captured several towns in eastern Livonia in response to a previous attack on Pskov.
In the Ida-Viru and Harju Counties, cities such as Paldiski, Sillamäe, and Narva were ethnically cleansed and the indigenous Estonian population was totally replaced by Russian colonists.
As a result of Soviet occupation, the Russian population in Estonia grew from about 23,000 people in 1945 to 475,000 in 1991, and the total Slavic population to 551,000, constituting 35% of the total population at its peak.
In 1217, an allied Ugaunian-Novgorodian army defended the Ugaunian stronghold of Otepää from the German knights.