Dating the historical buddha part 2
of Sanskrit and Indian Bareay from the original French text and that by Cornelia Mallebrien M. The publication of the present volume would not have been possible without the support granted by the Academy of sciences in Gottingen within the framework of its program of Buddhist studies. Petra Kieffer Pulz who was responsible for the redactional work her work was assisted by other co workers of the academy of sciences and the institute for Indian and Buddhist studies at eh university of Gottingen Particularly by Oliver Freberger and Andrea Gross M. There is no information on the dates of the historical Buddha the founder of the Buddhist religion which has been unanimously handed down by all major Buddhist traditions and universally accepted by scholars nor have scholars been in a position to arrive at a general agreement concerning this question. The question of the dates of the Buddha and his contemporaries is no less important for historians. Siddhartha afterwards Gautama the Buddha born at Kapilavastu is listed as the first historical date immediately after 3102 B. However already in the introduction to his epoch making edition and translation of the great Chronicle of Ceylon or the Mahavamsa which was published in 1837 George Turnour noticed a discrepancy of about 60 years between the dates of Maurya King Candragupta as provided by this tradition and the date which had been established by the identification of Candragupta with Sandrakottos of the Greek writers the synchronism discovered by Sir William Jones in 1793 Turnour concluded that the dates of the kings Candragupta and Asoka were calculated too early in the chronicle but he accepted the information of the Mahavamsa that 168 years has elapsed between the death of the Buddha and the accession of Candragupta to the throne and 218 years between the same was later on termed the corrected ling chronology it was further confirmed by the decipherment of the Asokan Inscriptions and the identification of contemporary Greek rulers mentions on them. C as the given for the demise of the Buddha has served as something of a bedrock for Indian chronology and most of the approximately dates which were assigned to early Indian literary works depend on this very date which was widely believed to represent the first historical date in Indian history. C etc, which have been repeated over and over again since the time if Max Muller were based on this chronological information. Suzanne Bareau for kindly giving permission to include the paper of her late husband in the present volume. Therefore the issue of chronology has been widely discussed in the circles of the international Buddhist movement and as we shall see below attempts have been made to rich a general agreement concerning the Buddhist Era though with limited success so far. It was the latest of the then known traditional dates of the Buddha and thus it seemed the most probable view. Heinz Braun’s contributions and Mr Jin-Il Chung Supported the evaluation of Japanese material my thanks are also due to Mrs. This situation has not only created considerable confusion for scholars but was felt as a stumbling block by modern Buddhists when they launched drives toward ecumenical cooperation. In the first period of European research into Buddhism in the early 19th century scholars tended to follow this uncorrected southern Buddhist or Theravada chronology. Richards Wilson kindly read through the English text of my and Dr. The birth date of the Buddha was reckoned back from 477 B. the year proposed as the date of the Buddha’s Parinirvana by Max Muller.The present volume concentrates mainly on those aspects which are directly relevant for the reconstruction of the early history for the reconstruction of the early history of Buddhist chronology as well as for the understanding of related developments in India in Sri Lanka and in the countries of Southeast Asian Theravada tradition. However all the contributors found in the symposium publication are listed in the bibliography of relevant literature which has been added in the present volume. Introductory Essay the Dates of the historical Buddha a controversial Issue by Heinz Bechert (1). The Dates of the Buddha in historical speculation 33 (8).The volume contains papers by Heinz Bechert Siglinde Dietz, Jens-Uwe Hartmannm Gustav Roth, Heinz Braun Hajime Nakamura, Herbert Hartel Herman Kulke, george von simsonm Adelheid Mette, Oskar von hinuber Wilhelm Halbfass Andre Bareau Mallebrein Petra Kieffer Pulz. The papers read at the conference and published in the two above mentioned volumes were composed in one of four languages Viz English German, French or Tibetan for the present volume all contributions have either been written in or translated into English. Concluding Remarks 34 The dating of the historical Buddha in the history of western scholarship up t 1980 by Siglinde Dietz1. The present volume represents an updated survey of the state of research in this field which is based largely on the results achieved at this symposium and incorporates some more recent investigations. Therefore various attempts have been made to reach a workable consensus but the majority of South Asian and Western as well as by a considerable number of South Asian scholars supposes that Buddha died within a few years of 480 B. to quote from the Cambridge history of India this calculation served as a cornerstone of early Indian history. published in western countries or in south Asia during the last hundred years.
the long chronology, but contains a number of problems.
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Bechert has placed thirteen contributions under this section heading and sums up the result as follows: This seems to slightly overstate the case as not all the contributors propose any dating and others have worded their position very cautiously.
It might be better to say that the overall tendency is to conclude that there is at minimum no objection to a later date. Expressing this in other terms, the Buddha's period of teaching activity was in the second half of the fifth century B. perhaps extending into the first quarter of the fourth century.
Ananda recited the Suttas, such that each begins: ‘Thus have I heard’ (Pali: Evaṃ me sutaṃ).