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At that time, much of the region was part of river-plains similar to the present southeastern United States with sub-tropical climate and vegetation of the Cretaceous period or the Age of Reptiles.Rivers draining the Western Mountains deposited layer upon layer of sediments which over alleged millions of years compacted to form the sandstones, mudstones, clays, and shales that form the Montana Badlands landscape according to the Makoshika State Park web site. It usually refers to any clay that swells and shrinks.Total organic carbon and/or dinosaur bone bio-apatite was then extracted and pretreated to remove potential contaminants and concordant radiocarbon dates were obtained, all of which were similar to radiocarbon dates for megafauna. Walter Libby's team of collagen from "dense mid-shaft femur bones" of twelve extinct saber tooth tigers, [Smilodon] from the Le Brea Tar Pits of Los Angeles CA.Key Words: Radiocarbon dating, dinosaur, bone collagen, organic carbon, bone bio-apatite, fossil wood, amber, megafauna Introduction Bone collagen and soft tissue were recently reported as having been discovered in a Tyrannosaurus dinosaur femur bone as well as other fossil bones from the Cretaceous period of the geologic column by Mary H. The RC ages for extracted bone collagen for Smilodon femurs ranged from 12,650 ±160 to 28,000 ±1400 RC years BP (Before the Present). Libby, the inventor of the radiocarbon dating method, "There is no known natural mechanism by which collagen may be altered to yield a false age." It is common practice to determine the age of bones by radiocarbon (RC) dating of extracted bone collagen but not of dinosaurs because they are assumed to have become extinct 65 million years BP and, therefore, too old for RC dating.The Hadrosaur location was in a dry wash which flows into Frank Creek, then into Glendive Creek and then into the Yellowstone River just North of Glendive Montana in the NW ¼, NE ¼ of Sec.32, T16N, R56 E, Dawson County, Montana about 13 km south-east of the Triceratops location according to Otis Kline (2). 1 and Fig 2 were taken during excavation for the Triceratops femur.Inspection of the femur cross section in Fig.3b revealed dried up Haversian systems and very little apparent mineralization.
well above the bone strata; this suggests that the RC date for the bones was reliable as clay acts as a barrier. Significant age discrepancies between C-14 and other radiometric techniques In spite of sometimes erratic C-14 dates, there are far more controversial dates when C-14 datable material or historical dates for magma flows are compared with potassium/argon dates. Lovering et al., the K/Ar dates for tektites ranged from 700,000 B. Fission-track dating ranged from 30,000 to 800,000 BP and was interpreted as consistent with K/Ar ages. Gill, had RC dated charcoal and calcareous nodules as they were found with "australites." Thus Lovering et al. Helens in the United States ranged from 350,000 to 2,700,000 years BP using K/Ar dating according to G. Had carbon-datable material been RC dated from the cores such as shells, carbonized wood, amber, charcoal and bones, would they have discovered a date much closer to the present as with the australites or as with the wood buried deep in the Prudhoe Bay permafrost?
Abstract: The discovery of collagen in a Tyrannosaurus-rex dinosaur femur bone was recently reported in the journal Science.
Its geologic location was the Hell Creek Formation in the State of Montana, United States of America.
Geology of the Triceratops and Hadrosaur excavation sites: The Triceratops and Hadrosaur femurs were found in popcorn clay. The color varies from grey to grey-green to green to tan; it is found in distinct thick strata.
It contains much volcanic material such as bentonite, or clays such as montmorillonite or vermiculite.